Permafrost exists extensively in the Arctic region and in mountain ranges, in places such as the Tibetan plateau. Both the construction itself and the warming of the climate cause permafrost to thaw, which in turn threatens both existing infrastructure and future construction projects.
In the literature review, which covered the permafrost area of the whole Northern Hemisphere, it was noticed that the proportion of damaged structures in the entire building stock ranged from less than 10 percent to as high as 80 percent. Russia had the greatest share of damage, while on the Tibetan plateau and in parts of Canada, damage was about 30 percent.
“According to published research, damage was lowest in the European permafrost area, such as the Alps and Svalbard”, says Professor Jan Hjort of the Geography Research Unit at the University of Oulu.
Forecasts reveal growing damage and rising costs
As much as 70 percent of today's infrastructure is in the risk area, when the warming of the ground caused by climate change is considered. “About 500 Arctic villages and cities are located in areas where permafrost is expected to thaw by the middle of this century”, explains Professor Miska Luoto of the Department of Geosciences and Geography, The BioGeoClimate Modelling Lab, at the University of Helsinki.
Transport and transportation infrastructure, such as railways, as well as oil and natural gas pipelines, appear to be in the most vulnerable positions. Relatively speaking, the greatest amount of infrastructure is in hazard areas in the mountainous regions of Central Asia, where temperatures of permafrost are already close to 0 degrees Celsius.